Glossary of Trade Show Terms

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A/V   Audio/visual support such as television monitors, VCRs, or taped music.
A/V Contractor    Supplier of audio visual equipment, projectors, screens, microphones, etc.
Advance Order   An order for services sent to the service contractor prior to the installation date. Compare with Floor Order.
Advance Price    Item's unit price when it is ordered and paid for prior to the deadline date.
Advance Rates   Fees associated with advance orders, which typically include discounts when paid in advance.
Advanced Drayage    A service for a shipment prior to a show's move in time, which includes a holding station for freight with shipping to the show.
Agent   A bona fide representative with proper credentials from the party represented.
Air Freight   Goods shipped via airplane.
Air Waybill   A bill of lading that establishes the terms between a shipper and an air transportation company for the transport of goods from a given location to a given airport destination for a specified charge. Compare with Inland Bill of Lading, Ocean Bill of Lading, Through Bill of Lading.
Aisle    Traffic area between booths.
Aisle Carpet    Carpet installed in aisles.
Aisle Signs    Signs (usually suspended) to indicate aisle numbers.
Association    An organization of people sharing a common interest. Some associations sponsor a trade show.
Assembly   The process of erecting an exhibit from its components. Also called Installation,Set Up.
Attendees   Those persons who visit an event that are not exhibiting nor even connected with the event itself.
Back-to-Back Booth    A booth which is back -to- back with another booth
Backlight    A light source which illuminates any transparent or translucent material from behind.
Backwall    Drape or panels at rear of booth - normally 8 ft. high.
Backwall Booth    Booth located on the outer most wall of the exhibit hall (also called Perimeter Booth).
Baffle   A partition designed to control light, air, sound, or traffic flow.
Banner   A suspended decorative or communicative panel, usually made of fabric or paper for temporary use.
Base    Steel floor support piece for upright post.
Bill of Lading (B/L    A document that establishes the terms of a contract between a shipper and a transportation company under which freight is to be moved between specified points for a specified charge.
Blanket Wrap   Uncrated goods covered with blankets or other protective padding and shipped via van line. Also called Pad Wrap.
Blueprint   A scale drawing of booth space layout, construction, and specifications.
Boneyard   A storage area for empty crates and contractor materials.
Blue Line    Copy of original floor plan.
Booth   An area made up of one or more standard units of exhibit space.
Booth Equipment -   Aluminum and steel framework that supports the booth draperies, to define booth spaces. Also called booth steel, booth hardware.
Booth Number -   Number designated by show management for each exhibitors space.
Booth Package -   Show management provides furniture and/or services to exhibitor for a single fee. (See package plan).
Booth Personnel   Staff members assigned by an exhibitor to work in an exhibit.
Booth Size   The amount of floor space occupied by exhibitor, e.g. 100 sq. ft. for a 10' x 10' booth.
Booth Sign -   Identification sign which usually includes company name, city and state, and booth number. For use with pipe and drape booths, is placed on the Backwall drape.
Breakpoint   The level at which a discount is given for a volume order.
Building Rules -   Regulations set by building management outlining procedures for their property.
CAD/CAM   Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing.

A pricing term indicating that these charges are included in the stated price.

Carpenter   A skilled worker used to uncrate, install, dismantle, and recrate exhibit properties.
Carpet    Floor covering for booth or aisle.
Carpet Tape    Double-sided tape, used to secure carpet.
Carrier   A transportation line moving freight. Usually a van line, common carrier, rail line, or air carrier. Also see Common Carrier.
Cartage   1. The fee charged for transporting freight.
2. The moving of exhibit properties over a short distance
Certificate of Insurance    A document provided by an insurance carrier outlining coverage on their clients. When insurance is discontinued, all holders of certificates of insurance are notified. These are required by show management before a Third Party Vendor can work on the show floor.
Certificate of Inspection   A document certifying that merchandise was in good condition immediately prior to its shipment.
Cherry Picker   Equipment used to lift people to a given height.
Clean Bill of Lading   A carrier-issued receipt indicating that transported merchandise was received in apparent good condition. Compare with Foul Bill of Lading.
Cleaning Service     Janitorial Service provided to exhibitors by a service contractor.
Coat Rack    Stand for hanging coats and hats.
Collective Agreement   A contract between an employer and a union specifying the terms and conditions for employment, the status of the union, and the process for settling disputes during the contract period. Also known as Labor Agreement, Union Contract.
Column     A pillar in an exposition facility which supports the roof or other structures. Usually denoted on Floor Plan as a solid square.
Commercial Invoice   An itemized list of shipped goods.
Common Carrier   A transportation company moving people or goods. For exhibit freight, the carrier usually accepts only crated materials and consolidates the properties of several
customers into one shipment bound for the same destination.
Consignee   A person to whom goods are shipped.
Consignment    A delivery of merchandise from an exporter (the consignor) to an agent (the consignee) under the agreement that the agent will sell the merchandise, receive a commission, and remit the net proceeds to the exporter.
Consignor   A person who sends freight.
Construction Drawing   A drawing which gives detailed diagrams and instructions for building an exhibit.
Consolidate   To ship freight to a central depot where several loads bound for the same destination are put together before being shipped to that destination.
Contractor    An individual providing services To a trade show and/or its exhibitors. May be Official (show management appointed) or Independent (exhibitor - appointed).
Convention Bureau    Organization to promote and assist conventions in their city.
Corner Booth    An exhibit space with exposure on at least two aisles; booth at end of aisle.
Counter    1. A table raised with leg extensions to 42" in height.
Craftsperson   A skilled worker who provides services at the exposition facility. Also called Labor.
Crating List   An itemized list of the contents of a crate.
Cross Aisle    An aisle at a right angle to a main aisle.
Cross Bar    Rod used in draping or as a support device.
CSR    Customer Service Representative - Communicates with customers via telephone or on a one-to-one basis in clarifying needs and resolving problems.
Cubic Content   Literally, length x width x height. With reference to booth space, the placement of exhibit properties at a height of 8 feet or more above the leased area. Also a measurement used in determining shipping costs for van lines.
Custom Exhibit    A display designed and built to meet the specific needs of an exhibitor.
Customhouse Broker   A person or company licensed to enter and clear goods through Customs.
Custom Carpet    Upgraded (heavier pile) carpet with special colors provided by the official contractor.
Cut & Lay   Installation of carpet other than standard booth size. Includes matching dye lots, laying, cutting, edge taping and plastic covering to protect carpet during set up.
CWT    Hundred weight. A weight measurement for exhibit freight. 100 pounds.
C.T.S.M.   Certified Trade Show Marketer!
D.O.T.   Department of Transportation.
DW   Deadweight (tons of 2240 lbs.)
Damage Report   A report submitted by an exhibitor to a freight company or drayage contractor itemizing damage to shipped goods.
Dead Man   Temporary post used during installation to help support the weight of an overhead structure.
Dead Time   Time when a worker is unable to perform duties due to factors beyond his or her control.
Declared Value   A shipper's stated dollar value for the contents of a shipment.
Decorator    1. Company that provides services to show management and exhibitors - drape rentals, labor, signs, etc.
Delivery Area    Area at show site to which products will be delivered for a particular show.
Detail Drawing    Drawing showing method of construction, plan views, elevations, floor plans, drains, etc.
DIM Weight   Length x width x height divided by 194 for domestic shipments, or divided by 166 for international shipments.
Directory   A catalog of basic information about the show, including exhibitors, floor plan and schedule of events. (This is also sometimes referred to as an On-site Program or
Dismantle    Take down and removal of exhibits.
Display    Method used to show a product or service. See Exhibit.
Display Builder   A company which fabricates exhibits.
Display House    1. Company which fabricates (builds) displays.
Display Case    Counter unit with glass top and/or front, for displaying product. Also called showcase.
Display Rules & Regulations    A set of specifications for exhibit construction endorsed by major exhibit industry associations. Also the set of rules for an exposition drafted by management and/or the facility.
Dock    A place where freight is loaded onto and taken from vessels or vehicles.
Dolly   A platform where freight is loaded onto and removed from vehicles or vessels.
Double-decker   A two-storied exhibit. Also known as Multiple Story Exhibit.
Double-Face Tape    Tape with adhesive on both sides used to adhere carpet to floor or for signs. Also called carpet tape.
Draped Booth    Backwall and siderail drapes, installed on pipe rails, usually provided by show management.
Drayage    Delivery of exhibit materials to assigned space, removing empty crates, returning crates at end of show for re-crating and delivering materials for carrier loading.
Drayage Contractor   A company responsible for handling exhibit materials at a trade show.
Drayage Form   A form completed by an exhibitor requesting handling of materials.
D.T. Labor   Double Time Labor. Work performed on overtime and charged at twice the published rate.
Duplex Outlet   A double electrical outlet.
EAC - Exhibitor  Appointed Contractor    A company appointed by the exhibitor to provide tradeshow services. Usually exhibit installation and dismantle.
Easel    Frame or tripod to display signs.
Electrical Contractor    Company contracted by show management or a facility to provide electrical services to a trade show.
Electrician    Handle installation of all electrical equipment. May include headers and signs.
Elevation    Drawing depicting front and side views of an exhibit.
End Cap    An exhibit space with aisles on three sides.
Estimate    An approximate calculation of the cost of performing a job.
Exclusive Contractor    Contractor appointed by show or building management as the sole agent to provide services.
Exclusive Use   The rental of a carrier's entire cargo space by one shipper.
Exhibit    Structure used to display products or convey messages.
Exhibit Designer/Producer   Company responsible for designing and constructing exhibit booths.
Exhibit Directory   A guide for exhibition attendees which lists exhibitors and exhibit locations.
Exhibit Hall    Area(s) within a facility where exhibits are located.
Exhibit House    The exhibit builder or the company who rents the exhibit to the exhibitor.
Exhibit Manager    Person in charge of an individual exhibit.
Exhibition    Event at which products and services are displayed.
Exhibitor Appointed Contractor   A contractor hired by an exhibitor to perform trade show services independently of show management appointed contractors. Also called Independent Contractor,
Exhibitor Manual/Kit    Traditionally, a paper manual containing general information, labor/service order forms, rules and regulations and other information pertaining to exhibitor's participation in an exhibit.
Exposition Manager    Show/event staff person responsible for the show.
Exposition General Contractor    Contractor appointed by management to provide contractor services to exhibitor. See also General Contractor, Official Contractor.
Exposition Rules   The set of regulations which govern a given trade show.
Fabrication   The construction of an exhibit.
Fascia    Panel at the top of an exhibit, usually bearing company name. Also referred to as a header.
FHC   A notation on floor plans indicating the locations of fire hose cabinets.
Fire Exit   A door designated for emergency egress, which must be kept clear of obstructions.
Fire Lane   An aisle that must be kept clear of obstructions to allow emergency egress.
Fire Retardant   Term used to describe a finish which coats materials with a fire-resistant (not fireproof) cover.
Floor Manager    Individual representing show management who is responsible for the exhibition area.
Floor Marking    Method of marking booth space on exhibit hall floor.
Floor Plan    1. A drawing showing the arrangement of booths, aisles, and public areas, etc. in the exhibit hall.
Floor Port    A utility box located in the floor containing electrical, telephone and plumbing connections (this box is recessed).
Foam Core    Lightweight material with a Styrofoam center used for signs, decorating and exhibit construction. (also called Gator Foam or Gator Board).
Forklift    A motorized vehicle which is used for lifting and carrying loads. It derives its name from two long flat extensions for picking up objects. (Also known as a Tow Motor, Fork Truck, or Lift Truck and less often as a Jeep.
Foul Bill of Lading   A carrier-issued receipt indicating that transported merchandise was damaged when received. Compare with Clean Bill of Lading.
Four Hour Call   Minimum work period for which union labor must be paid.
Freight   Exhibit properties and other materials shipped for an exhibit.
Freight Desk   The area where inbound and outbound exhibit materials are handled at a trade show.
Freight Forwarder   A shipping company which handles export shipments for a fee.
Frontage, Front Space    Refers to dimension across the front of an exhibit (for example, a 30 x 10 exhibit has a 30' of front space and 10' of depth).
Gangway   International term referring to the "aisle".
General Contractor    Company which provides all labor and services to an exhibition manager and exhibitors. (See Official Contractor and Exhibition Service Contractor).
Graphics    Communicative elements: color, copy, art, photographs, translites, etc. used to illustrate a booth theme or decor.
Grid System   A network of structural members, electrical conduits, and other support systems on
a pattern of centers.
Hall   A generic term for an exposition facility. May also refer to an individual area within a facility.
Hand Truck   Small hand-propelled vehicle used for transporting small loads.
Hard Card   1. Work order for labor or services.
2. Drayage contractor's record of materials received or shipped.
Hard Wire    Electrical connections which are other than receptacle. These are charged on a time plus materials basis.
Hard wall    A type of exhibit construction in which the walls are of solid material, rather than fabric.
Header   A sign or other structure across the top of an exhibit.
Height Limitation   Rules set by show management to control height of booths.
High Drape   Drape over 8' high which requires special equipment (pipe).
High Jacker   Equipment used to lift people to a given height.
Horizontal Bar -   Cross bar used for hanging drapes.
Hold Harmless Clause   A contract clause that relieves one party of responsibility in the event of a legal claim.
I & D -   Installation and dismantle of an exhibit. Generally an exhibit appointed contractor. Also known as Set Up and Take-down.
I.D. Sign -   Company name sign - usually includes booth number and city.
Independent Service Contractor-   Any company (other than the designated "official contractor) providing a service (display installation and dismantling, models/demonstrations, florist, photographs, audiovisual, etc.) employed by the exhibitor.
Infringement -   Unauthorized use of floor space outside exclusive booth area.
Inline Booth -   Exhibit space with exhibit booths on either side and back.
Install -   The time frame for installing a show or exhibit.
Installation & Dismantle -   Also referred to as I & D. The set up and tear down of exhibits.
Installation Contractor -   May be either "official" (as designated by exposition management) or "independent" (hired directly by exhibitor). Has control over labor pool, or has access to labor pool. Responsible for the supervision and coordination of installation and dismantle labor.
Island Booth    Booth space with aisles on all 4 sides. Also called Island Display, Island Exhibit.
Island Exhibit    This is an exhibit with aisles on all four sides.
Jigged Crate   A special-purpose crate with hardware to secure exhibit properties in place to prevent shifting during shipment.
Job Foreman   A person in charge of supervising and coordinating workers.
Junction Box   A distribution point for electrical power.
K.D. (Knockdown)   An exhibit with separate components that must be assembled on-site.
Kit   See Service Kit.
Labor    For shows, refers to workers who perform services.
Labor Call   1. Method of securing union employees.
2. Time specified for labor to report (as in a 7 A.M. call).
3. Minimum amount for which labor must be paid.
Labor Desk   Exhibit hall location where exhibitors may place orders for labor.
Labor Form   The form used by exhibitors to order labor.
Laborer See Craftsperson.
Labor Order    Refers to an order for exhibit installation and dismantle or any job for which the general contractor will bill labor.
Lamination   The process of bonding two or more substances together.
Lead Tracking   A manual or automated system used to conduct follow-up activities for sales prospects resulting from a trade show.
Liability    Legal issue of responsibility for damage or injuries.
Lighting   The amount or type of illumination in an exhibit or exhibition hall.
Light Box -   Enclosure with lighting and translucent face of plastic or glass.
Linear Display   An exhibit that is constructed in a continuous line along an aisle. Also called Inline.
Linear Foot (Lineal Foot)    Measurement of feet, a span in a continuous line.
Loading Dock   An area within an exposition facility where freight is received and shipped.
Lock-Up   A secure storage area within an exposition facility.
Logo    Symbol identifying an organization, company or event.
Loop Fabric   Fabric to which Velcro will adhere.
Low Voltage   A term applied to electrical currents of 24 volts or less. Usually used in animation and specialty lighting.
Management Company    A firm that is hired by a trade association to handle space sales, promotion and other aspects of organizing their trade show. The management company may be responsible for selecting the official contractor. Also called Show Management.
Manual   See Service Kit.
Marshaling Yard   A lot where trucks gather for orderly dispatch to show site.
Mask   To cover for painting or protection.
Masking Drape   A cloth used to cover storage or other unsightly areas.
Meter   The most common width for a backwall panel. (1 Meter = 39.37 inches)
Modular Exhibit    Exhibit constructed with interchangeable components.
Move-In    Date(s) set for installation of exhibits.
Move-Out   Date(s) set for dismantling of exhibits.
Multimedia   Combining two or more types of audio/visual support in a presentation.
N.O.H.M.   Not Otherwise Herein Provided.
Net Square Footage   The total amount of leased booth space in an exposition facility.
No Freight Isle    An isle that must be kept clear during installation and dismantling.
O.R.   Owner's Risk.
Official Contractor   Show management appointed company providing services to a trade show and/or
its exhibitors. Also called General Contractor. Compare with Exhibitor Appointed
Official Service Contractor    See Official Contractor.
On-site   A reference to the exhibit location. Also called At-site.
On-site Order   Floor order placed at a show site.
On-site Pricing   Item's unit price when ordered after the deadline date.
O.T. Labor    Work performed on overtime.
OT Surcharge    Work performed on overtime billed by either time and one-half or twice the published labor rates.
Overhead Work    Work performed over the exhibit floor usually requiring a scissor lift or man lift.
Overlay    A panel mounted to another surface.
Overtime   A designation for work performed outside the hours specified as normal working hours. Usually work performed on overtime is charged at a substantially higher rate.
P.D.   Per Diem.
P.W.   Packed Weight.
Package Plan   Show management provides furniture and/or services to exhibitors for a single fee. Also called Booth Package, Standard Booth Package.
Packing Case   See Shipping Case.
Packing List   A list showing the number and kinds of items being shipped as well as other information needed for transportation purposes.
Pad Wrap   See Blanket Wrap.
Padded Van Shipment   Uncrated goods covered with blankets or other protective padding and shipped via van line.
Panel System   A prefabricated exhibit composed of connected rectangular panels of various sizes.
Particle Board   A panel made of compressed, glued wood chips.
Peg Board   The trade name for a type of hardboard with perforations at regular intervals. Usually used for hanging items.
Peninsula Booth    Booth Space with aisles on three sides (also called End Cap).
Perimeter Booth   Booth located on the outer most wall of the exhibit hall.
Periodic Porter Service   Clean ashtrays and empty wastebaskets at two hour intervals, show hours only, for the duration of the show. Vacuuming is not included.
Pipe and Drape   Pipe material with fabric draped from it to create siderails and backwall of a trade show.
Podium   A demonstration area, usually higher than the surrounding floor.
Pop-Up Display   A type of small exhibit in which the backwall structure expands to size from collapsed, interconnected members.
Portable Exhibit   A lightweight display unit that can be moved without a forklift.
Porter Service   Exhibitor specified use of one or more porters.
Porter Service   Exhibitor specified use of one or more porters.
Power Strip   A movable unit having multiple electrical outlets.
Post   Metal upright used to support drapes. See Upright.
Prefab   A pre-built exhibit ready for installation.
Press Kit   A package of materials put together for the media. Usually a folder containing press releases, product announcements, and other materials.
Press Release   An article submitted to the media for publication. Usually announcing news about a product, company, or individual.
Producer   1. Exhibit Producer: An individual or company which designs and/or builds
2. Show Producer: An individual or company which manages trade shows.
Pro Forma Invoice   An invoice sent to a buyer prior to the shipment of merchandise which provides detailed information about the kinds and quantities of goods to be shipped.
Pro-number   A carrier-assigned number used to designate a specific shipment.
PYLON   A tall exhibit structure used for identification.
Quad Box   Four electrical outlets in one box.
Raceway   Metal or insulated rubber tubing used to channel electrical wires.
Rail    A low divider between exhibits.
Rear Illuminated    Technique of lighting color transparency from rear. Also called Back lighted.
Rear Projection   A video technique in which images are projected on a screen positioned between the projector and the audience.
Refurbish   The process of repairing or reconditioning an exhibit to extend its life span.
Relay   An electrical device used to produce programmed effects by interrupting the flow of current.
Release Forms   Forms provided by show management to permit the removal of materials from an exhibition.
Rental Exhibit    A complete hard wall exhibit rented to an exhibitor.
Return Panels   Side panels joined perpendicular to the backwall.
Rheostat   A device used to regulate lighting intensity. Also known as Dimmer Switch.
Rigger    A laborer responsible for machinery uncrating, unskidding, positioning, leveling, and reskidding.
Rigging    The process of attaching the cable on a crane to a piece of machinery or equipment.
Right To Work State   A state where no person can be denied the right to work because of membership or non-membership in a labor union.
Riser    Box-like shelf added to table or counter to form tiers.
Rod/Expander/Telescope     Various names for the piece of pipe on which drape is threaded for backwall and side rail back rails
S-Hook    Type of hanging hardware in the form of "S" used as hanger for I/D signs, etc.
Schematic Model    A diagram in model form.
Scissors Lift   A motorized platform used to lift people to a given height.
Scooter   An electric or gas cart used to transport people and materials.
Scrim   Fabric which is opaque when lighted from the front and transparent when lighted from the rear.
Security Cage   Metal cage to lock up exhibitor materials.
Self Contained Exhibit    Type of exhibit where crate is opened and becomes part of the exhibit.
Service Desk   The location at which exhibitors order services from show management.
Service Kit   A packet of show-related information and order forms provided to exhibitors by show management. Also called Exhibitor Kit.
Service Desk   The location at which exhibitors order services from show management.
Set Up   The process of erecting an exhibit from its components. Also called Assembly, Installation.
Set-Up Drawing   The plans from which the exhibit components are assembled.
Set-Up Personnel -   A labor crew that installs a show or exhibit.
Show Break -   Time specified for the close of the exhibition and beginning of dismantling.
Shipping Crate   A wooden container for transporting exhibit materials, which may be designed for a single use or custom built for extended reuse.
Shipping Case   A reusable container for transporting exhibit materials.
Show Break   Time specified for the closing of an exhibition and beginning of dismantling.
Show Close Date    Date that a show ends.
Show Card   Cardboard-like substrate used for signs.
Show Decorator   A company or individual responsible for providing draping, carpeting, and signage services for the trade show and its exhibitors.
Show Management    The organizer and operator of an exposition.
Show Manager   Association or management company staff which is responsible for overall show activities.
Show Office   The show management office at an exposition.
Show Photographer   Official photographer for exhibition; appointed by show manager.
Show Producer   An individual or company which manages trade shows, including leasing the exposition facility, hiring official contractors, and promoting the show.
Show Rules   The general rules and regulations governing a specific trade show.
Showcase    General term for glazed or framed enclosure for display of objects.
Side Char    Chair having no arms.
Side Rail    Term for 3' high drape divider used to separate one exhibit space from another.
Sign Copy   Represents the wording, logo, etc. that will go on a sign.
Sign Frame    A 22" x 28" chrome frame mounted on a pole, designated for displaying signs.
Sign Standard   A frame on a stand into which a sign can be inserted for display.
Silk Screen   A method of creating graphics with a reusable stencil.
Skirting or Skirt   A pre-pleated fabric made of poly satin or poly taffeta, which is stapled to tables or counters.
Skid   A low wooden frame used to support heavy objects or groups of materials for easier handling. Usually used as a platform for objects moved by forklift. Also called Pallet.
Space   The area occupied by an exhibitor in the exhibition hall.
Spotting    Placement of equipment in exact location in booth by using a forklift.
ST Labor    Work performed on straight time.
Stanchion    Upright post to support ropes for crowd control.
Stock Exhibits   A predesigned display modified for a particular use by the exhibitor.
Storage Area    Space at show set aside for storage of crates or materials.
Sub-Contractor    Company retained by prime contractor to provide services.
Supervision Fee    Fees charged by the general services contractor o supervise installation and dismantling labor for exhibits.
System    Modular Exhibit System- "System" often used to refer to the general services contractor's  Modular Exhibit Rentals.
T & M   See Time & Materials.
T.L.   Truckload.
Tabletop Display    Exhibit designed for use on top of a table.
Tack Board    A 4' x 8' board supported on legs. Can be used to display posters, graphics, signs or other materials.
Taffeta -   Type of material used for skirting or special draping.
Tape (Double-Faced)    Double faced tape used to adhere carpet within the booth space.
Tape (Duct)    Duct tape is sometimes used on the carpet edges and to secure carpet pad to the floor and carpet and carpet and pad together.
Tape (Fiber)    Fiber tape is used for strapping carpet rolls and closing cartons.
Tape (Masking)    Masking tape is the only tape to be applied to a finished surface or Plexiglas.
Tape (Plastic)    Plastic tape is used to close a carton, hold pads on blankets wrapped exhibits and for basic packing.
Talent   An individual or company hired to work in an exhibit to greet visitors, demonstrate
product, or stage a performance.
Target Date    A designated day and time for arrival of freight assigned to a particular exhibitor or exhibit area. Helps to assure smooth, timely and safe move-in.
Tax Exempt    Customer is exempt from paying taxes. Tax exempt certificate must be on file with the official general services contractor.
Tax Exempt Certificate   Document which verifies tax exemption status in the state the show is held.
Teardown   The dismantling of an exhibit. Also known as Take-down.
Telescopic Pipe   Tubing in which one section slides inside another. Used to support drapes.
Terminal   Freight handling or dock area.
Third Party Vendor    Any company (other than designated "official" contractor) providing a service (such as display installation and dismantling) employed by the exhibitor. See also Independent Service Contractor.
Time & Materials    Method of charging for services based on the materials used and the labor needed to perform a task.
Trade Fair    Broadly, international term for an exposition.
Trade Show   An exposition related to a particular industry or group, and open only to the members of that group.
Traffic Flow   The movement of visitors through an exposition or exhibit.
Transparency    A black and white or color translucent photograph or artwork.
Transient Space   Short-term rental space.
Turnkey Services    In essence, the exhibitor simply "turns the key" upon arrival at the show and opens the booth.
Twist Lock   A type of electrical plug that connects by twisting together.
U.L.   Underwriters Laboratory. An organization which grants electrical ratings.
Union   An organization of workers formed with the purpose of protecting workers' rights and increasing bargaining power with an employer on such issues as wages, hours, and benefits.
Union Steward   An on-site union official elected by coworkers to oversee a particular union's work in a facility and resolve any disputes over union jurisdiction. Also known as Shop Steward.
Upright    The vertical post that supports the backwall and side rail drape. Also referred to as post, stanchion, tube, pipe steel or pilaster.
Valance   An overhead banner typically used as a light baffle.
Velcro    Brand name of special tape used to adhere objects to a display. Has two components; loop and fabric. The two components adhere to one another, but may be separated, allowing graphics and other materials to be moved.
Vinyl    Plastic material used for drape or for covering tables, counters, and risers.
Violation    Breach of agreement with building, management or union.
Visqueen    Plastic covering over carpet for protection.
Warehouse    Building where exhibit materials and products are stored.
Warehouse Receipt   A receipt issued by a warehouse listing goods received for storage.
Waste Removal   The removal of trash from an area or building.
Wharfage   A charge assessed for handling cargo at a pier.
Wallboard   A construction product used for panels which are temporary.
Work Rules   The period of paid time which begins when craftspersons are turned over to an exhibitor and ends when they are released by the exhibitor.
Work Time    Paid Time that begins as soon as the workers are turned over to the exhibitor and stops when the exhibitor releases them.